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It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese , which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
The pinyin system was developed in the s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang ,  based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by the Chinese government in and revised several times. In this system, the correspondence between the Roman letter and the sound is sometimes idiosyncratic , though not necessarily more so than the way the Latin script is employed in other languages.
For example, the aspiration distinction between b , d , g and p , t , k is similar to that of these syllable-initial consonants English in which the two sets are however also differentiated by voicing , but not to that of French. From s, z, c come the digraphs sh, zh, ch by analogy with English sh , ch.
In the x, j, q series, the pinyin use of x is similar to its use in Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Basque, and Maltese; and the pinyin q is akin to its value in Albanian; both pinyin and Albanian pronunciations may sound similar to the ch to the untrained ear. Pinyin vowels are pronounced in a similar way to vowels in Romance languages.
The pronunciation and spelling of Chinese words are generally given in terms of initials and finals , which represent the segmental phonemic portion of the language, rather than letter by letter. Initials are initial consonants, while finals are all possible combinations of medials semivowels coming before the vowel , a nucleus vowel, and coda final vowel or consonant. The first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu — A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan , Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there.